Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/main.php on line 117 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 76 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 77 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 78 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 79 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 80 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 81 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/ManifestBuilder.php on line 74 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10812 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10813 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10814 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10815 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10816 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10817 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10818 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/home/qi/silverstripe_tr_live/mysite/_config.php on line 14 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/dev/LogEmailWriter.php on line 2 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/thirdparty/Zend/Log/Writer/Abstract.php on line 24 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/thirdparty/Zend/Log/Filter/Priority.php on line 24 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/home/qi/silverstripe_tr_live/modules/html-purifier/code/QIHtmlPurifier.php on line 31 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/home/qi/silverstripe_tr_live/mysite/_config.php on line 135 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10819 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10820 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/silverstripe-cache/manifest-static-main on line 10821 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/dev/Log.php on line 2 Warning: include_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/core/Core.php on line 70 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/thirdparty/Zend/Log.php on line 124 Warning: require_once(): Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/apache22/data/sapphire/thirdparty/Zend/Log/Exception.php on line 23 Mantar Testleri: Test

Mantar Testleri

Bu sayfayı paylaşmak ister misiniz
 Bu makaleyi yazdırın
 Bu sayfa yararlı oldu mu?
Diğer Adları: KOH yayma; Mantar yayma; Mikoloji testleri
Resmi adı: Potasyum hidroksit yayma preparatı; Mantar kültürü; Mantar antijeni ve antikor testleri

Bir Bakışta

Niçin Testi Yaptıracaksınız?

Bir mantar enfeksiyonunu saptamak, hangi mantar veya mantarların mevcut olduğunu belirlemek, bazen duyarlılık testi için mantarı izole etme ve çoğaltma amacıyla bu test yapılabilir.

Ne Zaman Testi Yaptıracaksınız?

Doktor deri, akciğer  veya sistemik mantar enfeksiyonundan kuşkulandığında; bazen tedaviden sonra tedavinin etkinliğini izlemek için bu test yapılır.

Gerekli Numune Nedir?

Numunenin nereden (nerelerden) alınacağı kuşkulanılan enfeksiyon bölgesine bağlıdır. Tipik olarak deri kazıntıları, tırnak, saç, vücut sıvıları kan numuneleri ve/veya doku biyopsi numunelerini içerir.

Test için Hazırlık Gerekir mi?

Gerekmemektedir.

Test Numunesi

Ne test edilmektedir?

Mantarlar, doğada tek hücreli mayalar  veya dallanmış lifçikli küf mantarları olarak bulunan mikroorganizmalardır. Ortamda 50.000 ‘den fazla mantar türü mevcut olmasına karşın 200’den az sayıda tür insanlarda hastalığa neden olmaktadır. Bunlardan yalnızca yaklaşık 20-25 tür sık görülen enfeksiyon nedenleridir.

Mantar enfeksiyonları, dokuların bir veya birden fazla sayıda mantar türü tarafından istilasını, yüzeyel deri enfeksiyonlarından ciddi derin doku, kan, akciğer veya sistemik hastalıklara  kadar değişik enfeksiyonları temsil eder. Yüzeyel mantar enfeksiyonları çok sık görülmektedir. Tırnak enfeksiyonları veya genellikle bilinen atlet ayağı, kasık mantarı ve saçkıran  veya ağız içinde beyaz lekeler (pamukçuk)  vajinal kaşıntılar ve akıntıya neden olan kaşıntılı pullu deri enfeksiyonlarına neden olabilirler. Hastalık Kontrol ve Korunma Merkezlerine göre kadınların hemen hemen % 75’i yaşamları boyunca en azından  bir maya mantarı enfeksiyonuna yakalanacaktır. 

Mantarlar daha düşük sıklıkla olmak üzere ilk yerleşimlerinden daha derin dokuların içine doğru yayılabilir veya ciddi akciğer enfeksiyonları, septisemi veya vücudun herhangi bir organını etkileyebilen sistemik enfeksiyonlara yol açabilir. Akciğerlerin mantar enfeksiyonları tipik olarak mikroskopik mantar sporlarının kazaen solukla alınmasıyla başlar. Herkes ciddi akciğer ve sistemik mantar enfeksiyonlarına yakalanabilirse de hastaların çoğu yalnızca hafif -orta derecede soğuk algınlığına benzer bulgulara sahip olacaktır. Ancak, HIV/AIDS’liler gibi bağışıklıkları yetersiz  kişiler, organ nakli yapılanlar, diyabet  veya akciğer hastalığı gibi altta yatan hastalıkları olanlarda ağır mantar enfeksiyonu, sistemik enfeksiyon ve/veya nükseden enfeksiyon riski artmıştır.

Enfeksiyonlara tanı koymak ve tedavilerini yönlendirmeye yardımcı olma amacıyla mantarları saptamak ve tanımlamak için mantar testlerinden yararlanılır. Mantar testi tipik olarak bir lam üstündeki numunenin mikroskopik incelenmesini, bazen mantar bileşenlerini ayırt etmeye yardımcı olmak için  bir preparat veya boyalı numune hazırlanmasını içerir. Bu yaklaşım enfeksiyon etkeninin bir mantar olduğunu belirlemek için bu yöntem yeterli olabildiği gibi  yüzeyel enfeksiyonlarda artık başka teste  gerek duyulmayabilir. Daha kesin tanının gerektiği inatçı, derin doku veya sistemik enfeksiyon olgularında daha sonra kültür, duyarlılık testleri, antijen  ve/veya antikor testleri gibi ilave testler yapılabilir.

Test için numune nasıl toplanır?

Kuşkulanılan enfeksiyon lokalizasyonuna (lokalizasyonlarına göre) numune alınır. Yüzeyel enfeksiyonlar için deri kazıntıları, kesilmiş veya tıraşlanmış tırnak veya kıl/saç, bit çubuklu tamponla toplanmış vajinal salgılar veya idrar numunesi toplanabilir. Daha derin doku, organ veya sistemik enfeksiyonlar  için bir toplardamardan kan numunesi, akciğerlerden gelen  balgam veya bir doku biyopsimateryali kullanılabilir. Menenjitten kuşkulanıldığında  beyin-omurilik sıvısı numunesi incelenir.

Numunenin kalitesinden emin olmak için herhangi bir test hazırlığına gerek var mı?

Test için hazırlık yapılması gerekmemektedir

Test

Sık Sorulan Sorular

^ Başa dönün

3.  Niçin doktorum birçok numune alacak ?

Enfeksiyonun vücutta ne kadar uzağa yayılmış olduğunu değerlendirmek ve bazen mantarın tespit edilme olasılığını yükseltmek için birçok numune alınabilir.

^ Başa dönün

4.  Mantar enfeksiyonu eninde sonunda tedavisiz kendiliğinden iyileşecek mi?

Bazıları iyileşebilirse de tedavi edilmezse çoğu sebat eder. Akciğer ve sistemik enfeksiyonlar giderek kötüleşebilir, bulgular şiddetli olmasa bile kalıcı doku ve organ hasarına neden olabilir. Bazı derin doku enfeksiyonları tedavi edilmezse hemen hemen her zaman ölümcüldür.

^ Başa dönün

5.  Tedaviye uzun süre devam etmek gerçekten gerekli mi?

Evet. Kısa bir müddet kendinizi iyi hissetmeye başlasanız bile doktorunuzun önerilerine uymalısınız.. Maya mantarı enfeksiyonları birkaç gün ila hafta arasında iyileşebilirse de bazı mantar enfeksiyonlarının iyileşmesi sürekli tedaviye rağmen aylar hatta yıllar alabilir.

^ Başa dönün

Bir Laboratuvar Uzmanına Sorun

* doldurulması gerekli alanı gösterir



Lütfen kim olduğunuzu belirtin:   
  
  
  
  
  
  



Bir yanıt almanız için geçerli bir e-posta adresi vermelisiniz.



| |

Makalenin Kaynakları

« İlgili Sayfalara Geri dönün

NOT: Bu makale, burada söz edilen kaynaklarla birlikte Lab Tests Online Editörler İnceleme Kurulunun toplu deneyiminden yararlanan araştırmaya dayanmaktadır. Bu makale belli aralıklarla Editörler Kurulu tarafından gözden geçirilmekte ve inceleme sonuçlarına göre güncelleştirilebilmektedir. Alıntı yapılan her yeni kaynak listeye eklenecek ve kullanılan orijinal kaynaklardan ayırt edilecektir.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1569, 1570, 1532, 1616.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, Twelfth Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 629-716.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Candidiasis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/candidiasis_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Aspergillosis (Aspergillus). CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/aspergillosis_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Blastomycosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/blastomycosis_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Coccidioidomycosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/coccidioidomycosis_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Cryptococcus. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/cryptococcus_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Dermatophytes (Ringworm). CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/dermatophytes_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Histoplasmosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/histoplasmosis_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Sporotrichosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/sporotrichosis_gi.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2006 October 26, Updated). Fungal nail infection. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001330.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2006 October 16, Updated). Tinea Corporis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000877.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Berman, K. (2007 April 12, Updated). Athlete’s Foot. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000875.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2006 October 16, Updated). Tinea capitis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000878.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Berman, K. (2007 April 12, Updated). Jock itch. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000876.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2007 April 12, Updated). Skin lesion KOH exam. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003761.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Berman, K. (2006 October 13, Updated). Wood’s lamp. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003386.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Stokowski, L. (2007 November 20). Fungal Skin and Nail Infections: Practical Advice for Advanced Practice Clinicians. Medscape Nursing Perspectives [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/566002 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 8-16-08.

Pappas, P. (2007 May 31). Invasive Fungal Infections: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis CME/CE. Medscape [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/556373 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 8-13-08.

(2005 November, Revision). Fungi. The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch180/ch180a.html?qt=fungal%20infection&alt=sh#sec14-ch180-ch180a-1521 through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 8-13-08.

(2005 November, Revision). Fungal Skin Infections. The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec10/ch120/ch120a.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 8-13-08.

(© 2006-2008). Yeast-Associated Syndromes. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfectiousDz/Fungi/Yeasts.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed on 8-16-08.

(© 2006-2008). Mold-Associated Syndromes. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfectiousDz/Fungi/Molds.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed on 8-16-08.

Ellis, D. (2008 February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au/Laboratory_Methods/Microscopy_Techniques_and_Stains/calcofluor.html through http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au. Accessed on 8-16-08.